Documenting events, supporting the premise mass has been removed from the universe, inside black holes. The scientific method requires that I also document events apposing the premise that mass has been removed from the universe. The current consensus that the universe was created in a big bang makes this a very difficult task. I would suggest that most evidence that supports a big bang can more easily be used to support a universe built from dark energy.LIGO news from Caltech
23rd January 2020 The hunt for quasars takes a new direction with the growing number of Fast Radio Busts (FRB's). The link to superluminous supernova adds a new source of high energy events, to investigate when looking for associated gravity waves. Using the Very Large Array a team of scientists searching known superluminous supernovae, have discovered a persistent radio source associated with a superluminous supernova. Tarraneh Eftekhari (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), and collaborators published details of their first success. Gravity waves offer the best option for proving fractal physics. But as the numbers of gravity wave events grow, the birth of a quasar remains elusive. After looking for 6 years, I must admit I am becoming a little impatient. The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) an interferometric radio telescope has recorded vast quantities of FRB's. The structure of fractal physics and the source of (FRB's) suggest the most likely source would be the birth of new stars.
8th January 2020 No one studying dark energy and dark matter could fail to appreciate the contribution of the pioneering work carried out by the astronomer Vera Rubin. Frequently listed as a candidate for the Nobel Prize in physics she became a major figure in the field of astronomy. Her calculations on the angular motion of galaxies confirmed, massive amounts of unseen mass was preventing galaxies from flying apart. In 1933 the Swiss astronomer Frits Zwicky first proposed the existence of dark matter, also using the high rotation rates of galaxies; his proposal was rejected by the physics community. On Monday the 6th of January the American Astronomical Society, honoured the astronomer Vera Rubin by renaming the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, the Vera C. Rubin Observatory. Vera Rubin is one of the giants on whose shoulders I now stand.
6th January 2020 Details of a second neutron star collision GW 190425 recorded 25th April 2019, was published at a press conference, for the American Astronomical Society in Honolulu on Monday the 6th of January. Katerina Chatziioannou an astronomer at the Flatiron Institute in New York City explained, the total mass of the neutron star pair was 3.4 times that of Earth's Sun. This is the heaviest pair of neutron stars ever observed and challenges astronomer's current model of neutron stars. No evidence of associated electromagnetic radiation was recorded during this event, something unexpected in current theory. The lack of electromagnetic radiation is explained in fractal physics, if there is only dark matter in the accretion disk there would only be a release of dark matter and a gravity wave signal. The future looks bright for gravity wave astronomy; a new Japanese detector is scheduled to come on line in February 2020.
4th January 2020 I have always known the maths required to model my physics would be beyond my ability, but I thought I would be able to convert the CAD drawing of the elementary structures into mathematical equations. Expecting a single calculation would explain the layout of all the arrays of small and large tori that build the fractal structures of my physics, was the reason for the delay in finding the solution I found the answer was to build up to the solution in three steps. The first step uses trigonometry to calculate the position of the cross section centres of the minor radius of the smallest ring of tori. The second step required the sine rule to calculate the minor radius of the cross section centres of the larger tori. Step three the outer ring of large and small minor cross sections centres of tori again only required trigonometry. Finally I can publish the second edition of The Bright Universe.
December 31st 2019
This extreme pulsar was recorded in the radio frequency over a period of only 100 days. A team of scientists led by Lars Nieder reasoned if the pulsar could be detected as gamma radiation, years of data from the Large Area Telescope of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, launched in 2008 would be available.
Nieder and collaborators develop novel search and timing methods allowing faint gamma-ray pulsations to be detected. The new data has answered some questions but also revealed new mysteries yet to be solved.
December 28th 2019
Gravity waves from quasars are in short supply.
The James Web Space Telescope scheduled to be launched in March 2021 at a cost of about $9.7 billion will be the ideal tool to understand the implication of the gravity waves generated when a quasar is created.
This combination of telescopes forms the ideal combination to confirm or deny fractal physics. I had not expected the proving of fractal physics to be quite so expensive.
December 11th 2019 I created the above image and used Google image search to find a similar layout. The image search failed, at the time of writing there are no images in the Google data base of a double array of linked circles. I also learned the nearest image was the imperial seal of Japan, not much help in my quest for understanding the maths of fractal physics.
November 28th 2019
The fractal structure of my physics requires a simple array of tori, interlinked with a second outer array of larger tori. The calculation for the inner array is basic trig using the convention of SOH CAH TOA.
The second array required a little more knowledge, I assumed I could apply the Sine and cosine rule.
a² = b²+c²-2bcCos(A)
But found there was not enough information to apply this solution, I then assumed I would need to use quadratic equations. I had used the BBC and the under ground mathamatics websites to refresh my algebra. I then suspected I would have to use differential equations to incorporate the upper and lower arrays in the same calculation, but failed to find a suitable solution on line.
October 29th 2019
Dr. Patrick Ogle and co-authors analyzed data for 23 super spiral galaxies, explaining these galaxies significantly exceed the expected rate of rotation for their mass.
With speeds of up to 350 miles per second compared to the Milky Way Galaxy with a spin of only 130 miles per second.
The rapid spin of super spirals may be attributed to the presence of an extraordinarily massive halo of dark matter.
October 2nd 2019
The Article in space.com by Mara Johnson-Groh introduces a new study that documents the mathematical calculations for the dark energy inside the event horizon of black holes.
Using modified versions of Alexander Friedmann's equations in physical cosmology. The astrophysicist Kevin Croker and Joel Weiner professor emeritus in mathematics at the University of Hawaii at Manoa have explained black holes may be full of dark energy. These are the first calculations I am aware of that support the possibility that black holes have a structure built from dark mass.
The conclusion that the dark energy inside black holes is the source of inflation is challenged by fractal physics. In fractal physics a percentage of the mass inside black holes is annihilated, it is removed from the universe; this cancels out inflation, the opposite of the conclusions drawn in this article.
September 13th 2019
The Article in space.com by Samantha Mathewson reports the publication of data gathered over the past twenty years from Seyfert 2 galaxy GSN 069, explaining quasi-periodic X-ray eruptions approximately every nine hours lasting for approximately one hour. High-amplitude optical to X-ray variability can expect to have timescales from months to years.
In fractal physics there is no distinction between quasars and seyfert galaxies, it is assumed that all massive black holes retain their mantel of stars, gas, and dark energy particles, regardless of where they are in their cycle.
The creation of a new seyfert galaxy would generate the same cyclic gravity wave as a new quasar. They would each confirm the predictions advanced in fractal physics.
September 11th 2019
In Fractal Physics Neutron Stars would be known as Elementary Particle Stars or Dark Matter Stars. In all my books the creation of Neutron Stars has been neglected.
In The Bright Universe I explain, existing black holes are revealed when saturated black holes or stars explode. Had I remembered more about Neutron stars then, I would have explained the explosion would reveal what remains of the original saturated black holes or suns core of elementary dark energy particles.
They are a minor distraction in the cycling of galaxies; they simply regrow until they acquire enough mass, to begin generating thermo-nuclear reactions, when they would become regular stars. The alternative is for them to merge with existing stars or black holes, combining their mass.
September 9th 2019
The structure of the Fractal cyclic universe was published in Fractal Physics in 2014, with the following features.
1/ New elementary particles are continuously created from quantum fluctuations. The creation rate of elementary particles is dependent on the strength of the surrounding vacuum.
2/ Elementary particles are removed from the universe when their density exceeds the Fractal Stability Limit.
3/ The cyclic element of the universe occurs at the level of the galaxy, when elementary particles that have been created over billions of years are removed from the universe in black holes over hundreds of years or much less.
4/ There is no known limit to the size or age of the universe.
5/ The greatest distance we can detect is limited by the speed or the length of time the signals we detect remain coherent.
6/ There is no record remaining for the Birth of the universe, it is assumed it would have been signalled by the appearance of quantum fluctuations.
September 5th 2019 A good theory of everything, should explain everything. Most theories published before dark energy was discovered have a high rate of failure. Theories built on fractals of dark energy offer new solutions to many of the problems in current physics. On the 4th of December 2019 Paul Sutter an astrophysicist at The Ohio State University, published details of the Fermi bubbles each side of the Milky Way and the mystery of the resulting radiation. Dark Energy Physics documents how the jets of energy needed to create Fermi bubbles are created and their role in the function of quasars. Gravity wave signals with improved sensitivity have been recorded since the first of April 2019. I am surprised that after four months they have not yet announced the detection of the creation of a Quasar, I must assume Quasars are not created as frequently as I had expected. I have been unable to find data predicting the removal of massive quantities energy from black holes with no explanation in current physics.
August 30th 2019 Ultra compact galaxies are the precursors of quasars; as such the known locations of ultra compact galaxies are the first place optical telescopes should look when the gravity wave signals of collapsing black holes are detected. The universe of mass is the opposite of the universe of light, the Brighter the Galaxy the greater the volume, the greater the mass the smaller the volume. In issue No2 dated June-July 2018 The award-winning freelance journalist Rebecca Boyle publised the first artical I have found, that documents an "ultra-diffused" galaxy, strong evidence supporting the premise of a fractal universe. She explains the details of a study published in March in Nature, by Pieter van Dokkum and his colleagues,"So-called dark matter is as much a defining feature of galaxies as stars and gas." She also quotes the theoretical physicist Erik Verlide"If it's true that a galaxy exists where there is hardly any dark matter, I think that's a problem for all theories about galaxy formation."
August 25th 2019 Ultra diffused and ultra compact Galaxies represent a challenge for physics, each are treated as separate types of galaxy that exist in isolation. Fractal physics explains that all galaxies spend most of their lives growing by creating and feeding their black holes. These black holes eventually form the centre of their galaxy, combining to form a supermassive black hole. The larger the supermassive hole grows the denser the galaxy becomes, resulting in the formation of an ultra compact galaxy. When the density inside the black hole exceeds the fractal stability limit the positive and negative energy of the elementary particles come together and are annihilated, forming a cavity. The walls of the cavity collapse filling the cavity and creating a shock wave that increases the density, resulting in further gravitational collapse. Creating a quasar that persists until the density drops below the fractal stability limit. Mass that has been accumulating for billions of years is removed from the universe over the lifetime of the quasar, creating an ultra diffuse galaxy that starts to grow repeating the cycle.
August 6th 2019
In my search for an understanding of the current consensus in the Physics and Astronomy, Scientific American came to my attention. I subscribed, gaining access to their back catalogue of space & physics articles. In issue No.3 August-September 2018 of Space & Physics, associate editor Lee Billings, explains the conflict between the current rate of the expansion of the universe and the rate of expansion 14 billion years ago. In all my reading of the cosmological constant, the issue of a cosmological variable is never considered. I am well aware that Fractal Physics treats the expansion of the universe as a variable, I had not realised its significance. The conflict in the rate of expansion will be resolved if and when the gravity waves generated during the creation of a quasar confirm the missing mass documented in fractal physics.